Plantar fasciitis refers to the inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that lies at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toes and supports the arch of your foot. Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain. It is most often seen in middle-aged men and women, but may also occur in those who are constantly on their feet, as with soldiers.
The plantar fascia functions as a shock absorber and supports the arch of your foot. Excessive pressure over the fascia may strain and tear the tissue, causing heel pain. Repeated overstretching or overuse causes irritation or inflammation of the fascia.
Other risk factors may include obesity, foot arch problems, such as flat feet or high arches, activities such as long-distance running, ballet and dance aerobics, occupations that necessitate walking or standing on hard surfaces for a long period of time, and wearing shoes with poor arch support or thin-soled shoes.
The most common symptom is stabbing pain on the bottom of the foot, near the heel. You experience pain when you take your first steps on awakening. It slowly decreases, but may return after standing for a long period of time.
Your doctor will examine your foot and check for signs of flat feet or high arches, tenderness, swelling, redness, and stiffness or tightness of your foot arch. Your doctor may suggest an X-ray or MRI scan to rule out other causes of heel pain, such as a stress fracture or pinched nerve.
Most patients with plantar fasciitis are effectively treated with the following measures: